Historic! Finale!

Before I start, I want to let you know that I’ll be at an event for Books of Wonder in New York City on September 22nd between 3:00 and 5:00 pm at 10 Columbus Circle, 3rd floor. There will be a fee for this one, but I’ll have lots of time to chat. As always, I’d love to see you there. Click here for details: https://booksofwonder.com/blogs/upcoming/tea-and-tales-at-bluebird-london-nyc.

Here’s the final installment about writing historical fiction. I’ll be jumping around to pick up the bits that weren’t in the last two posts.

Why write fiction rather than nonfiction, in which we can say directly what happened? Nonfiction is worth considering, especially if we’re writing for children. In nonfiction for adults, the author will be expected to be an actual historian specializing in the period, but for children, the expectation will be different though also demanding: that the author be a thorough researcher and a good writer. It’s an interesting challenge, to write an accessible, interesting history. The writer has to make hard decisions about balance and what to include and what to leave out. When I was starting out as a writer wannabe, I attended a lecture by Jean Fritz, notable writer of history and biography for children, who said that we learn best through being surprised. This stuck with me because it rang true. Can we build into our nonfiction account the kind of surprises that will make our narrative memorable? Can we tell the history in a lively way?

If we’re writing fiction, how much latitude do we have to bend the facts? How faithful must we be? In my first historical novel, Dave at Night, I included a painting that was actually painted a year after the events in the book take place–but I revealed the discrepancy in my Afterword. I think that in historical fiction, though not so much in historical fantasy, we need to stick strictly to the truth unless we have an important reason to stray (as I felt I did in Dave at Night), and then we have to let the reader in on our untruths in an Afterword. We kids’ book writers have an obligation to children to get it right.

How do we treat real life historical figures? In Dave at Night, which takes place in 1926, I didn’t give any dialogue to historical figures, who could appear in scenes, but at a distance. I did invent characters who stood in for real people, but I changed their names. Then I felt free to let them talk. But in A Ceiling Made of Eggshells, which takes place near the end of the fifteenth century, I did put words in the mouths of King Ferdinand, Queen Isabella, Princess Isabella, the duke of Medinaceli, and Columbus. My reasoning was that we know a lot of what was said by public figures in 1926 and very little from the late 1400s, so I felt safe in the second case. You may decide differently.

We can’t really know what people were like way back when. There were even differences between almost a hundred years ago and today, but when I wrote Dave at Night, I knew and had known many people who were alive back then, including my father, whose childhood the book is based on. I wasn’t just guessing. But for the fifteenth century, I was. We have another decision to make here. Do we want our characters to be twenty-first century personalities in period costume? Or do we want, as much as we can (because, ultimately, this is impossible to do entirely), to create characters who belong in their temporally distant world? There are arguments on both sides. Characters with current attitudes and understandings will be easier for a reader to enter and relate to. But characters who belong to their time will take the reader on a deeper journey–you can see what I prefer, though both choices are valid. My MCs are generally strong and independent, but in Loma, the MC of Ceiling, I wanted a girl of her time. She’s put in situations that force her to think for herself, but when inspiration strikes, she never takes credit for it; she says God sent it or her dead grandmother or her absent grandfather. Taking credit would be beyond the way she regards herself, beyond what I believe a girl back then would think.

In one way, writing historical fiction may be easier than writing other genres, especially for writers, like me, who are plot challenged. If we choose a time of conflict, events can structure our plot. This worked when I was writing about the expulsion of the Jews but not for my more personal orphan story, Dave at Night. In my expulsion story, events laid out the rising and falling action.

How long ago is our time period? What’s known about these events? The further in the past, the less is likely to be known. Likewise, the less famous the events, the less likely they are to be known in detail. If there are gaps in knowledge, we have some freedom to color in the empty spaces, but our plot still has to be possible in context. This doesn’t come into my book, but, as an example, between six hundred and two thousand of children of the Jews who went to Portugal after the expulsion were enslaved, baptized against their will and the will of their parents, and sent by ship to an island off the African coast to plant and harvest sugar cane. Little is known of what happened to them, so a novelist who wants to take on this saga will have some freedom to invent–but will still have to stay true to the period.

What are the known biases held by historians about a period? I recently read a historian refer to certain other historians of Jewish life in medieval Spain as belonging to the “lachrymose school,” basically the crybaby school, weeping over the tribulations of the Jews. I understood what he meant, having read some of these scholars, but I wondered if he belonged to the stiff-upper-lip, take-it-on-the-chin school. What biases are held by most people?

Whose history does a writer have the right to address? Do you have to be Jewish, for instance, to write fiction about Jewish history? I don’t think so. A wonderful example is the holocaust novel Schindler’s List by Thomas Keneally, an Australian Christian. What are the ethics? (This is just food for thought.)

Is the writer of historical fiction entitled to an opinion? Should we slant it? Can we avoid slanting it? More food for thought.

This has been fun to write about, though a little deeper in the weeds than usual, but I’ve reached the end of my workshop notes, just in time for three prompts:

∙ Back to the Salem witch trials. According to Wikipedia, “Overall, the Puritan belief and prevailing New England culture was that women were inherently sinful and more susceptible to damnation than men were. Throughout their daily lives, Puritans, especially Puritan women, actively attempted to thwart attempts by the Devil to overtake them and their souls. Indeed, Puritans held the belief that men and women were equal in the eyes of God, but not in the eyes of the Devil. Women’s souls were seen as unprotected in their weak and vulnerable bodies.” Your MC, a seventeen-year-old female servant, believes that this is true. When rumors begin to circulate that she’s a witch, she thinks they may be true. Write a scene in which she tries to discover whether or not she’s a witch.

∙ Introduce fantasy into the world of the witch trials. Mischievous imps, who mean no good, do whatever they can to keep the witch accusations going. Your MC discovers them and tries to stop them, which makes her their target. Write what happens–a scene or an entire story.

∙ In ancient Athens, girls and women spent most of their lives at home, going out only for religious festivals. In ancient Sparta, girls were trained to be athletes, just as much as boys were, and they were outside often. Imagine that a girl of Sparta moves with her family to Athens, and that a girl of Athens moves with her family to Sparta. Write a scene in the first week for each of them in their new environment.

Have fun, and save what you write!

  1. Writing Ballerina says:

    I’m so excited for CEILING!!

    Question for you guys: When you have a lot of story ideas, how do you pick which one to develop?

    • Either all of them or none of them! 🙂 Really, it depends on the time of year. I’ve been writing short stories to give my family as presents for a while now, so I often consider who would like what story. You might try something similar. (Also makes sure that I don’t just forget about it.)

    • future_famous_author says:

      My friends, who read my stories, but have trouble keeping up, get really mad at me for starting a story and stopping only a couple pages in. I start a new story almost every day now. It’s a problem. I think that if you can find a story that you actually enjoy writing, then just force yourself to stick with it. It’s not everyday you find an idea that really holds your interest, and so you have to stick with them. It can be hard, and my brother and I have had many arguments about which is harder, basketball or writing, but you just have to remind yourself that it’s fun. I really struggle with this, too, and have yet to finish a novel in my six years of writing.

    • This is something I’ve struggled with for a long time. My best advice would be to write everything down as soon as possible. Usually, what happens to me is that I’ll get an idea, think about it for a day, write a paragraph or two, and then start from scratch with another idea the next day. I think it’s because I don’t develop my ideas, so I don’t get really invested in them. If I had characters, names, faces, and some fragments of a world, it gives me something to focus on and be interested in.
      So I’d recommend developing the first idea that comes to mind, and seeing where it takes you. If the idea is “What if people were once dragons?” Then write that down, and branch off from that. Stories are really just multiple ideas combined into one. (Though it’s a lot more complicated than that) So it could be, “What if some humans knew this, and wanted to become dragons again for evil purposes.” Then, it could turn into, “What if the hero had to figure out how to become a dragon first to stop them, but if they became a dragon, they wouldn’t know how to become human again, so they might have to leave there family and X love interest behind, even though their family means everything to them.”
      Just stick with it, and try to focus on one thing. Write things down, and don’t be afraid to say: “This isn’t working for me.” and move onto another idea.
      It’s also okay to be developing an idea and to write down as many ideas that come during that time. It’s about not letting the ideas float away, and really making them more than just a sentence or two. Ideas are, in a lot of cases, a dime a dozen. And if one doesn’t work (After you devolpe it, of course) then it’s okay to move on. Besides, if you at least write things down, you can come back to them later.
      I’m not sure if this’ll help, but I hope it does.

    • I tend to go with whichever one I feel most excited writing about, like other people said. However, I also have a few other ways. For fanfiction especially, I talk to my online friends (and sometimes my IRL friends, but not all of them share my interests, while most of my online ones do) about which one they’d like to read the most, and then I write the one that’s shown most interest. This also helps me finish because I’m excited to get comments!

      I’ve also merged some ideas. My current WIP, Curses and Other Inconveniences, is partially a blend of two abandoned ideas- a story about a girl and a ghost that has to follow her around until they make up for the generally evil things they did in life, and a story based in Greek mythology where the gods have gone corrupt. I stole the character dynamics from the first and some of the worldbuilding from the second, and wound up with two boys, one human and one a yuki-oni- a snow demon- who are going on a road trip across the world and encountering creatures from various mythologies. The human succeeded at the yuki-oni Kaito’s challenge and now Kaito has to serve him for a year, so they’ve got a similar deal in practice as the girl and the ghost.

      That just turned into me ramblkng about CAOI, sorry, but I hope some of that was helpful!

  2. I am reading “The Lost Kingdom of Bamarre” with my 9 yr old daughter. She is going through all your books since we watched “Ella Enchanted”. I see really strong comparisons between the Lakti and the Bamarre to Nazi Germany and the treatment of the Jews on so many levels. So much so that it served as an introduction to start introducing her about one of the most saddest tragedies in this modern era (as my mother and grandparents are survivors). I see that you are referencing the Spanish Jews in your blog — but I was wondering if this was really at the forefront of your thinking? Thank you for sharing your talent and creating an opening for a very important conversation.

    • Gail Carson Levine says:

      I was thinking most about prejudice in general, but I was aware that there were connections with Nazism. My next book, A CEILING MADE OF EGGSHELLS, is historical fiction directly based on the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 and the events and attitudes that led to it. It’s fiction, but the history is as accurate as I could make it.

      I’m so glad your daughter is reading my books!

  3. Writing Ballerina says:

    Katie W.,
    I noticed you posted a question in Historic part 1 that you needed a map-building software. This problem might be solved by now, but I had an idea that might help if anyone else has this problem.

    For one of my WIPs, I also needed a map of a small island. What I did was took a drawing software and drew the rough outline of what I pictured the island to look like. Then I put in the landmarks, like a huge forest and a canyon, and the town the MC lives in. Then I used the text function to name the landmarks and put in a legend. Quite simple, actually, and I don’t know why I didn’t think of it way back when you posted the question.

    As for drawing software, I like Autodesk Sketchbook. It’s an app where most, if not all features are free and creating an account is only optional. It also allows for layers to your drawing, where (for example) you could draw the rough outline, put a layer on top, and draw some detailing on the shore, and if you make a mistake you can erase only the detailing rather than the outline. (I don’t know if that example made sense, sorry.) I would recommend getting Sketchbook on your phone or something with a touch screen, because drawing with a mouse or track pad is awful. Also if you can get your hands on one of those pens with the rubber tops and “draw” on your phone with that it’s easier than your finger.

    Anyway, hope I helped anyone with this problem!

    • Thanks! I tried Paint, but I couldn’t control it finely enough. I’m honestly tempted by now to draw something on paper, scan it into the computer, and see what happens. Of course, that wouldn’t solve my main problem, which is that I have terrible handwriting and minimal computer skills. Really, the main reason I want something on the computer is so I can make copies if I have to. Otherwise, I would just draw something out by hand.

      • future_famous_author says:

        Maybe if you have a good friend who has good handwriting and at least decent drawing skills, you could do a rough draft of the map, and have them do a better version? And then you could scan it, maybe?

      • Not sure if my original comment on the last post ever got posted (I think the links may have triggered the spam filter), but I really like Inkarnate (inkarnate (dot) com). It’s free (you just have to register), online, and much simpler to use than a professional drawing software like illustrator, photoshop, or gimp (which is basically a free, open-source version of photoshop).

        As a general tip, software, sites, and forums specifically for players of tabletop RPG (such as dungeons and dragons) often have good tips/advice for creating fantasy maps, since a ton of RPG players create their own maps for their games and need a quick and efficient way to do so.

        Hope this helps!

  4. I’m having a lot of trouble with one of my MC’s. In one of the character development posts, I don’t remember which, there’s a bit that describes him perfectly. “He develops strategies to distract from himself, becomes charming, a great talker, a reliable friend, but he never feels truly seen–because he doesn’t let anyone truly see him. Our plot needs to get him out of his isolation.” Problem is, I have no idea how to pull it off. How does he turn from a social chameleon to someone willing to stand up for an unpopular opinion? I have him doing it, but the transition seems too sudden, because he’s doing it for the sake of the plot and because I want him to, not because it fits with who he is. Although I have very little idea of who he is, as well, which might be part of the problem. Any suggestions?

  5. Does anyone have tips for writing subplots? I tend to write short stories, which don’t need subplots, but now that I’m trying to do something longer, it needs more depth. Also, my sentences tend to feel incomplete if they don’t have at least one comma, leading to run-on sentences. Any tips there?

  6. Writing Ballerina says:

    Ask your character what he would naturally do in this situation. Then let him do it. Your plot will work itself out later.

    Here are some suggestions just in case.
    1. Maybe he’s very passionate about the unpopular opinion, and when he’s passionate about something, he throws all caution to the wind because he urgently feels it needs to be heard.
    2. Maybe a friend of his asked him if he could contribute to the standing up of said opinion, and, being a reliable friend, doesn’t want to let the friend down, and over time can grow in confidence.

    • Number 2 is essentially what I have happening, with a bit of number 1. The problem with number 1 is that he would rather gather caution from the wind than throw it to it. He’s the steady, reliable type, and feels like once someone makes an opinion of him, he is obligated to fulfill their expectations. Also, I have no idea what “growing in confidence” would look like. I’m an introvert trying to write a very socially conscious introvert who has trained himself to look like an extrovert. The other problem is that I’ve finished the first draft, so I know what needs to happen, I just don’t know how to make it happen while making his choices seem natural.

  7. Does anyone else struggle to come up with stakes for your story? I’ve always had difficulty coming up with stakes. I mean, I can say the universe will end, but I can never figure out why. I feel like everything is to cliche, or not interesting enough. I also have problems with smaller stakes. Yes, the universe is at risk, but what do my characters have to lose personally? I always have trouble with that.
    Does anyone have any advice?

    • Writing Ballerina says:

      There are three kinds of conflict: internal, interpersonal, and external. A good story has all three. Maybe identifying each type of conflict will help you find the stakes.

      With internal conflict, you have to ask your character either what quality he wants the most or what he fears to lose the most. This struggle is what the readers will identify with. You can give it to the MC then snatch it away, let it seem just out of reach, or force him to deal with the opposite of it.
      Examples: identity, respect, authenticity, significance, acceptance, success, joy, value, justice fulfillment, survival, security, etc

      External conflicts involve overcoming some obstacle. Your “universe at risk” example is an external struggle.

      Interpersonal conflicts are in a sense both internal and external. They deal with the MC’s feelings and with the relationships with others.

      Other ways of raising the stakes include deepening danger, making consequences of failure more severe, challenge the characters to perform under greater and greater threats of harm, eliminate potential solutions, etc.

      Good luck and hope I helped!

      • You helped a lot! I can’t believe I didn’t think of this sooner! I swear, I’ve read a lot of stuff about this, but somehow forgot about it until now? Also, do you (or anyone else for that matter) have any advice on how to come up with good villains, and ways for there motivations to make sense? I think that’s something else I struggle with.

        • There are several posts already on writing villains. Other than looking through the archives, I would recommend reading a lot of books with well-done villains, and some with poorly executed villains so you can compare.

          • Thanks! I checked the Archives, but as far as I’ve seen, none of them answered my specific question:
            How do you come up with a villain scheme that’s realistic, but not cliche? Like my example before, destroying the Universe isn’t realistic because the villain (and everyone who might work for him) live in the Universe.
            You see what I mean?

          • If you could have the villain wanting to destroy the whole universe except for one place, then that could give your heroes a way to stop him. If he put a “bubble of protection” or whatever over a place, then the heroes could exploit that. Although that does leave the question of why he would want to unanswered.

    • My conflicts usually all connect at the center. In one of my books, the MC is a spy of sorts. The internal conflict is learning to trust herself and others, which leads to turning to the other side in the war. The external struggle is the possibility of the war and knowing she’s one of the only ones who can prevent it. If she can deal with the internal conflict, the external conflict could possibly be solved.

  8. My problem is I’m trying to write about America in the 1300s for the current thing I’m working on, and history isn’t nearly as well documented as it is for Europe. I thought I knew quite a bit, but I’ve just realized their (the Cheyenne people’s) culture has changed. Like, a lot. They used to live an urban, agricultural lifestyle, for a while, but became more nomadic due to a series of battles that forced them out into the Great Plains and away from a river valley, for example. It makes me worry that I don’t know enough, and on top of that, I have to add fantasy elements, which might chaange the history. And two side characters are Chinook, a tribe which I’ve barely done any research on! Any advice?

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